KH-Tankschutz

Glossary

Acrylic resins
Particularly durable synthetic resins, produced through homo- or copolymerization of acrylic and/or methacrylic acid esters. Air drying acrylic resins and their watery dispersions are used as binders for architectural and façade paints. Thermosetting acrylic resins are binder components of baking varnishes for metal and plastic surfaces.

Acrylic glazes
Watery coating materials, often appearing cloudy in the container, initially with an iridescent cloudy appearance upon coating, which disappears in the course of the drying process. After drying a clear and transparent glaze develops. The cloudiness in the wet form is not a quality defect.

Additive
added to the liquid paint in order to improve its properties or mitigate negative effects. Additives are usually used in small quantities only (> 1%). Examples of important additives are thickening agents, antisettling agents, anti-skin agents, preservatives, leveling agents, and drying agents.

Aerosol
(coinage composed from latin aer “air” and solutio “solution”) is a mixture composed of solid or liquid floating particles and a gas. An aerosol is a dynamic system and is subject to constant changes from the condensation of vapours. Familiar aerosols are fog (small water droplets suspended in air) or smoke (solid particles in air). Another example of an aerosol is the varnish mist in the spray jet of a spray gun.

Alkyd resin varnishes
(or alkyd varnish / paint) are suitable for wood or metal, both for interior and exterior application. Their properties can be precisely configured with the raw materials used during the production process. The term alkyd is derived from the words alcohol and acid. Because of the synthetic production in contrast with the natural resins, the term synthetic resin is also used in the context of alkyd resin varnishes.

Amines
Organic derivatives of ammonia. Used as hardening agents for two-component varnishes.

With anti-graffiti powder 
and anti-graffiti varnish, graffiti can be easily removed without leaving any residue. Even after repeated cleaning with aggressive graffiti removers, the optical appearance of the surface remains unchanged.

Application techniques
Techniques for the processing of varnishes and paints. Familiar examples of application procedures include brushing, rolling, spraying, dipping and flooding. The choice of technique depends on the type of items to be painted and the coating system used.

Alkalis
(Greek βάση, base – the foundation, basis) in a narrower sense are all compounds that are capable of forming hydroxide ions (OH) in a watery solution, thus raising the pH of a solution.

Architectural paint
Collective term for all coating materials that are used in the construction sector. These can be further differentiated into dispersion paints which are used to paint walls and facades and construction coatings used to coat wood and metal surfaces such as doors, windows and radiators.

Aqueous coatings
Coating materials on the basis of a watery plastic dispersion that creates a coating film similar to a varnish.

Airless
describes a paint spray technique in which the spraying material is atomized and applied to the surface through high pressure without aeration.

Airmix
Spraying technique for surface treatment, in which the varnish is primarily atomized through the hydraulic pressure at the nozzle. This atomization is aided by pressurized air from the air nozzles, the formation of spray mist is slight.

Adhesive
Process material used to glue various materials. According to ÖNORM and DIN EN 923 an adhesive is defined as a “nonmetallic material that is able to bond assembly parts by means of surface adhesion and internal strength”.  

Anticorrosive agent
A substance that offers temporary or durable protection against corrosive attack. Common anticorrosive agents are oils, varnishes (coatings with synthetic materials), chemicals or metal (oxide) coatings. These can be applied permanently in order to avoid or delay corrosion during the use of the item and thus prolong its useful life.

Anticorrosive pigment
A pigment used in priming coatings that inhibits or prevents the corrosion of metal surfaces, usually through chemical or physical-chemical mechanisms.

Basecoat
The colouring layer of a double-layer top coating. The basecoat is followed by a clear coat layer that creates a glossy surface and protects the entire coating structure from weathering and from mechanical and chemical wear.

Benzene
Colourless, flammable liquid. Benzene is used in the production of aromatic compounds in organic chemistry. Because it is a carcinogen, benzene has lost its significance as a solvent.

Binding agents / film formers
Essential components of a coating. After drying and hardening they form the hard and mechanically resistant layer that adheres to the base surface. Depending on the type of binding agent the filler can be given new processing and material properties.

A high binder content in a construction material mix, a ceramic material or colourant is called fat, a low content (high portion of aggregates) is called lean. Substances that are used to only partially connect solid materials are adhesives, not binding agents.

Bio-coatings
Coating agents on the basis of natural raw materials (despite being partially chemically prepared). With the current state of the art, results are often not satisfactory when compared with similar, synthetic coating materials.

Bottom-up technique
Deliberate construction of nano structures from atoms and molecules. Through the combination of different organic and inorganic components completely new substances and materials can be created. One of the most important techniques following the bottom-up principle is the sol-gel process. 

Base varnish
Two-component coatings consist of a base varnish containing the binder, pigments, and fillers, and the hardener. The coating substance is created by mixing the two components just before processing.

CAS Registry Number
(CAS = Chemical Abstracts Service) international identification standard for chemical substances

Chalking
is a form of damage of varnish-coated surfaces. It indicates the exposure of pigment and filler particles by degradation of the organic binder in the areas close to the surface of the varnish coating. The pigment particles then lose their bond with the film. Wiping down such a surface gives the impression that it had been covered in a layer of chalk.

Chromating
describes a group of surface engineering techniques. In this process, complex chromates are formed through a reaction of chromic acid on metallic surfaces and the base material is partially dissolved. The dissolved metal ions of the base material are built into the chromate layer. On an industrial scale, chromating is mainly used on zinc and aluminium.

Cellulose thinner
is used for dilution, dissolving or brush cleaning. The solution is generally composed of esters and other hydrocarbons and is often flammable and harmful to health. For this reason manufacturers recommend good ventilation during use.  

Clear coating
Transparent varnishes that are often composed of nothing more than binders and solvents (besides the usual varnish additives), and therefore do not contain any fillers or covering pigments. Any colouring is achieved through dyes or transparent pigments. Clear varnishes are often used as coating materials. In a coating system the clear varnish is the upper layer that protects the underlying layers against mechanical damage and weather influences.

Cleasy 
is the brand name of a protective wet coat system modeled after the lotus flower by M2 Entwicklungs-, Produktions- und Vertriebs GmbH headquartered in Dortmund. The word Cleasy – a combination of clean and easy – summarizes the basic properties of the product: as in the lotus effect, cleasy allows water to bead off the surface. Moisture and dirt can no longer settle properly. Surfaces refined in this manner are easier to clean and keep clean. Cleasy lends particular properties to the coating surface: high gloss, quick drying, anti-icing, dirt and insect repellent, fire-protective.

Coil-Coating varnishes
Varnishes for coating sheet metal. The metal sheets are cleaned straight after rolling, pretreated and coated. The metal sheets (up to 2m width) are rolled up into coils after the coating has hardened. The coated sheets are used to produce utility articles such as household appliances without needing to varnish further. In order to withstand the deformations arising from this process without damage, coil-coating varnishes have to be very elastic.

Corona
Oval surface structure

Corrosion
(from lat. corrodere, „to decompose, eat away, gnaw to pieces“) From a technical standpoint this is a reaction of a material with its environment that causes a measurable transformation of the material and can lead to an impairment of the function of a construction part or system. Chemical corrosion occurs in metals. Probably the most widely known form of corrosion is rusting, the oxidation of iron.

Corrosion protection
Steps taken to avoid damages that can be caused by corrosion of metallic construction parts. Since an absolute resistance to corrosion is impossible to produce, the protective measures generally aim at slowing down the corrosive attack to the extent that damage to the construction part can be avoided during its useful life.

Crater formation
Usually caused by unsuitable diluting agents or by pockets of trapped air or water in the coating film. Another form of crater formation is caused by silicone contaminants of the surface to be coated. 

Cross-cut (DIN EN ISO 2409)
The cross-cut test is a quick and simple procedure used to assess the adhesive strength of single or multiple layer coatings. The cuts are executed either in a 30° angle (method A) or in the right angle to one another, so that either a cross or an X is created. The assessment methods can be carried out as pass / fail test. When testing multiple layer systems, the adhesiveness of the individual layers can be determined.

Cross-linkage
Reaction between binder and hardener, during which three-dimensional insoluble polymer structures develop out of dissolved or dispersed polymers. The cross-linkage is accelerated by catalysts, heat or energy-rich radiation.

Degreasing
Removal of fatty components of surfaces. Fat interferes with the advesiveness of the varnish composition. The preparation of the surfaces must include careful degreasing.

Demidekk Ultimate Helmatt
is an environmentally friendly covering paint for use on wood, with a matt look.

DIBt approval
The German Institute for Construction Technology (DIBt) is the German approval body that awards general building authority approvals (abZ) for construction products and methods, and issues European Technical Assessments (ETA) for construction products and assembly sets.

DIN EN ISO 12944
Basic norm for corrosion protection gives recommendations about surface preparation and corrosion protection of varnish systems.

Dispersion
(from latin dispersio, dispergere “to spread, stretch out, scatter”); generally a fine spreading or scattering.

easy-to-clean effect
Surfaces that have been refined with cleasy can generally simply be washed down with water.

Effect pigments
Pigments that cause colour effects in a coating depending on the angle of vision. Materials used as effect pigments:

  • Aluminium platelets that create a metallic effect when they are aligned parallel to the surface (change in brightness when changing the angles of vision, this is also called flip-flop effect)
  • Interference pigments, flake-shaped particles made from glimmer to which very thin layers of metal oxides (e.g. titanium dioxide or iron oxide) are applied. Depending on the thickness and kind of the metal oxide layer, these particles create diverse colour effects through interference of the incoming light that change with the angle of vision

Elastomers
are plastics that are resistant to deformation but elastically malleable. The plastics can be shaped elastically under tensile and pressure load, but return to their original, undistorted shape afterwards. Elastomers are used as a material for tyres, elastic bands, washers, etc. The most familiar elastomers are the vulcanizates of natural rubber and silicone rubber.

Electric dip coating
A coating technique for conductive surfaces (metals, metallized plastic surfaces). As the object is immerised in the dip tank the varnish coating is deposited on the object’s surface through the effect of an electric direct current. For anodic electric dip coating the item to be painted is wired as anode, for cathodic dip coating the item represents the cathode in the electric DC circuit. When the current is flowing, the varnish dispersion coagulates and forms an adhesive coating film that is tough and corrosion-resistant after hardening at 120 – 200°C. All motor vehicles are nowadays primed using cathodic dip coating.

Emulgators
Auxiliary materials that help to blend two liquids that normally cannot be mixed, such as oil and water, into a smooth and stable mixture, the so-called emulsion.

Emulsion paints
Coating materials made from plastic dispersions and pigments as well as filler substances. Plastic emulsion paints are also called plastic latex paints. In the general language plastic emulsion paints are also called emulsion paints.

Endothermic reaction
The term describes chemical reactions that require an energy input to be supplied from an external source. 

Epoxides are a group of highly reactive, cyclical, organic compounds.

Epoxy stands for epoxy resin – a synthetic resin.

Façade paints
are used to add colour to pastered surfaces but also to concrete or limestone. They are weather resistant emulsion paints or silicate paints.

Fillers
Natural or synthetic inorganic substances that are insoluble in the binder and are used as raw materials for varnishes and coating substances in the form of fine particles. They influence the mechanical properties of the varnish films. Barium sulfates, kaolines, talcum or chalks.

Formulation / formula
stands for the composition of a coating material and therefore the kind and quantity of binders, pigments, fillers, solvents or dispersing agents and additives. By adjusting the formula, significant properties can be changed.

FROSIO / FROSIO inspector
Norwegian expert committee for education and certification of inspectors for surface treatments. FROSIO certified coating inspectors enjoy the highest international respect and fulfil the requirements of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Fungicide
Chemical or biological agent that kills fungi or their spores or prohibits their growth for its period of activeness. Fungicides are primarily used in plant protection, but also in specialist paints.

Glaze
The term describes a transparent or semi-transparent coating as well as a thin application of translucent coating agents. The term “to glaze” is primarily used in the context of film-forming layers with binders, the same process with a watery technique is called washing.

Glycoles / glycole ethers
Group of organic chemicals that are based on ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol as base unit. Glycoles such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and especially their ethers are used as solvents and co-solvents in varnishes and water-dilutable varnishes.

High Solids
Coatings with a high percentage of solid bodies (>70 percent).

Hydrophobisation
Application of water-repellent materials so that the water transport below the surface is lowered or prevented.

hydrophobic
The term hydrophobic originates from ancient Greek (ὕδωρ hýdor „water“ sowie φόβος phóbos „fear“) and literally translates to “water-avoiding”. The measure of the extent of hydrophobia displayed by substances is hydrophobicity. With this technical expression from chemistry we can characterize substances that do not mix with water and often cause it to bead off surfaces.

Impregnation (to impregnate)
(derived from the Late Latin verb impraegnare for to impregnate, soak, fill with a substance) is a saturating treatment of solid porous materials, such as textiles, paper, wood, concrete, etc., with dissolved, emulgated or dispersed substances, the impregnating agents. After the solvent or dispersion medium has dried or evaporated, the applied substances give the treated materials modified performance characteristics.

In-can preservatives
Chemical substances that kill of microbes. In-can preservatives are contained in many dispersions such as paints, varnishes and detergents. They ensure a long shelf life and high product quality and prevent molding and rotting of emulsion paints and varnishes in their container.

Industrial coating
Serial coating of industrially manufactured products, mostly in painting lines. One of the wide-spread types of industrial coating is powder coating.

Interference
Superposition that occurs when light waves meet; creates colour phenomena.

Intumescence
(lat. intumescencia, from tumor - swelling) describes an expansion or swelling, an increase in size of a solid body. In fire prevention the term describes the purposeful swelling or foaming of materials. Intumescent construction materials increase in volume when heated and decrease in density.

Kaolin
Aluminium silicate hydrate. Due to its ideal properties, natural kaolin is occasionally used as a filler in emulsion paints, but more often it is used as a filler in (electro)dipcoat-primers.

Linseed oil
Complex mixture of glycerol esters, mainly of unsaturated fatty acids. In air, an autoxidation to solid, polymeric products occurs. Linoxyn is the main component of all oil paint coatings. When linseed oil is heated to 250-300°C in aluminium equipment under the exclusion of air, the more viscous linseed stand oil is produced. Paintworks with these oils are firmer, more elastic and more resistant to weather and temperature differences.

Lotus effect
The term lotus effect or lotos effect describes the low wettability of a surface as it can be observed in the lotus plant. Water beads off in droplets and washes away any dirt particles present on the surface. Responsible for this is a complex micro- and nanoscopic architecture of the surface that minimizes the adhesion of dirt particles.

Metallic effect varnish
Coating substances containing metallic effect pigments, notably aluminium. Particularly in automotive and industrial coating they are employed as top coats. In order to create a specific effect or colour tint, other effect pigments or coloured pigments can be added. Metallic effect varnishes are almost exclusively used as base coats.

Nanocomposite
In this coating substance the dispersion bonding agent is reinforced with nano-scale particles. This causes a webbing of the coating and makes it harder and less thermoplastic.

Nanotechnology
The collective term nanotechnology (Ancient Greek nános “dwarf”) is based on the same range of dimension that is the foundation of all nano research areas, namely the nano particle from the single atom up to a structural size of 100 nanometres [1 nm = one billionth of a metre (10-9 m)]. This range of dimension designates a margin in which the surface properties of materials play an ever increasing role in relation to their volume properties. This means that in nanotechnology scales of length are reached on which the properties of an object are particularly determined by its size.

Natural Colour System®© (NCS)
a standardized colour system based on human colour perception. The NCS helps to circumvent common traps in colour adjustment. Usually this includes the ability to precisely specify colours, with support from exact and stable colour standards as reference samples and under specification of correct colour tolerances.

Norsok-Standard / NORSOK M-001
This technical directive, developed by the Norwegian oil industry, lays down the mandatory requirements for the corrosion protection of off-shore installations. Among other stipulations, the directive redefines hot dip galvanization or duplex systems as “protective coating”.

OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer

Ormocer
Product name for a hybrid polymer composed of inorganic and organic components. The inorganic silicate components create abrasion resistance, the organic polymers make the Ormocer flexible. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC in Würzburg manufactures custom-made materials out of Ormocers. Until now they have mainly been used to coat plastic glasses in order to make them scratchproof. Thin layered corrosion protection coatings are also realized using Ormocers. Ormocers can also be used in three-dimensional form, for example in tooth fillings.

Overspray
is the percentage of sprayed materials (e.g. varnishes, insulating or advesive agents) that does not reach the workpiece in spray applications, but escapes into the environment in the form of spray mist.

Oxidative drying
occurs with alkyd resin varnishes in particular. After the solvent evaporates, the binder molecules move closer together and begin to deposit oxygen in the context of light and warmth. This causes a webbing of the individual molecule chains of the binder, and the layer hardens.

Paint removers (or paint strippers)
are chemical substances that help remove old coatings of paint or lacquer (e.g. on wood). The process is known as paint stripping.

Pearl effect coating (or mother-of-pearl lacquer)
A special variety of metallic coating. It is characterized by its particular brilliance and a pronounced mother-of-pearl sheen. During coating, tiny metal particles are mixed into the varnish, these create the excellent gloss effect. The paint layer with the metal particles is finished with a coating of clear varnish. The special coating has the considerable advantage that the composition of the individual particles makes it harder and therefore more resistant. 

pH-value
measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH-value indicates the amount of hydrogen ions (H+) present in the solution.

Physical drying
After the solvents have evaporated, the dissolved binder particles merge and form the coating film. This film forming does not cause a material alteration, so that coatings which have dried this way can generally be dissolved again (with a suitable solvent), in contrast with reaction resins where a chemical reaction creates a firm chemical bind between the molecules so that these coatings can no longer be dissolved. When water varnishes containing polymer dispersions as binders are physically dried, the polymer particles of high molecular weight merge after the evaporation of the water and form the coating.

Pigments
(latin pigmentum for “colour”, “make-up”) are colouring substances, but in contrast with colouring agents they are insoluble in the application medium. “Application medium” as a term describes the substance into which the pigment is introduced, such as a varnish or plastics.

Plasticizers
Substances that are added on a large scale to plastics, paints and varnishes, rubber and adhesives and film coatings in order to make them softer, more flexible, smoother and more elastic for use or further processing.

Polyacrylates
(polyacrylic acid esters) are polymers created from esters of acrylic acid. They are plastics that are used in varnishes and as dispersing agents for adhesives among other things.

Polyesters
Raw materials for varnishes and plastics, created through esterification of polycarbonic acid with polyalcohols.

Polyethylen (PE)
is a thermoplastic synthetic material. Polyethylene belongs to the group of polyolefins. Well-known trade names are Alathon, Dyneema, Hostalen, Lupolen, Polythen, Spectra, Trolen, Vestolen. Polyethylene is produced on the basis of ethylene gas, which can be produced either petrochemically (the conventional way) or out of ethanol (in the future this will be possible on an industrial scale).

Polyisocyanates
Hardening agents for two-component varnishes.

Polypropylen (PP)
was first synthesized in 1954 by Karl Rehn of the Hoechst group and simultaneously by Giulio Natta at the Politecnico di Milano. Natta, who was the first to file a patent application for polypropylene, started industrial-scale synthesis in 1957 at the Italian company Montecatini. Today, polypropylene is the second most important plastic after PE (in terms of sales).

Polysiloxane
more precisely poly(organo)siloxane, names a group of synthetic polymers in which silicon atoms are linked via oxygen atoms.

Polyurethan (PU)
(DIN-abbrevation: PUR) are polymers or synthetic resins that can be hard and brittle or soft and elastic, depending on the production method. Elastomers in particular display a comparatively high tensile strength. In an expanded form, polyurethane is known as a permanently elastic soft foam (e.g. for sports shoe soles) or as a rigid installation foam.

Polyurethane varnish
Two-component reaction varnish. Polyurethane varnishes are very adhesive, hard-elastic and chemically resistant coating materials.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
is an amorphous thermoplastic synthetic material. PVC is tough and brittle and becomes elastic only after the addition of softening and stabilizing agents, pliable, and suitable for technical applications. PVC is known for its usage in flooring, window profiles, pipes, for cable insulation and sheathing, and for vinyl records.

Pot life
the time for which reactive materials such as glue stay workable, also called period of usability or open time. This is the time between mixing of a multi-component substance and the end of its usability, the time during which the substance can be taken from the pot and used. The end of pot life is often announced by a visible increase in viscosity that prevents further use.

Powder coating
Powdery, solvent-free coating material, that forms a coating after melting and hardening through heat exposure. Powder coatings are applied by electrostatic or triboelectric spraying onto workpieces or construction parts.

PPG Industries (PPG)
is a US-manufacturer of synthetic glass and chemical products based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The product areas include non-mineral glasses for automobiles, fiberglass, flat glass, and also shatterproof glass for the automotive and space industries. They also produce synthetic resins, paints and car lacquers, chemicals and coating materials for space technology, architecture and industrial purposes.

Primer
The first layer of a coating, the foundation.

Protective Coating
International term for heavy corrosion protection.

RAL
The German institute of quality assurance and labelling at the German standards committee (DNA). RAL reviews and monitors the award criteria for the “Blue Angel” and concludes a trade mark agreement with the manufacturer. Besides numerous definitions and quality conditions for coating substances, the standardization of a limited range of fixed colours, put down in the colour register RAL 840 HR, is of particular significance for coating manufacturers and consumers.

RAL colours
Standardized colours marketed by RAL gGmbH (a subsidiary of the RAL institute) under the name RAL Classic.

Reactive drying
When two-component coating substances (epoxy resins, polyurethane) dry out, hardening agents and the so-called master varnish are transformed into long and interconnected binder molecules by means of a chemical reaction. The result is a highly durable coating.

Reactive thinner
Diluting agent that becomes part of the binding agent in the hardening process of the coating.

Reflow effect
can be observed on self-healing coatings. Here, damages to the varnish are not prevented by extreme strength but are inititally accepted. Through heat exposure the scratch closes up again.

Rust
Corrosive product that forms out of iron or steel through the process of oxidation with oxygen in the presence of water.

R and S phrases
Risk and safety phrases: codified warnings that characterize the danger signs of individual hazardous substances (elements and chemical compounds) and dangerous preparations manufactured from them.

Shellac
A natural resin of animal origin. It is extracted from lac, the secretion of the female scale insect (kerria lacca).

Silicate paints
Coating substances with inorganic binders. Silicic water glass (potassium water glass, potash silicate) acts as a binder for silicate paints, which are manufactured and used as two-component system or as single-component paint or as dispersion silicate paint depending on the formula.

Silicones
Plastic based on a silicon-oxygen framework. Silicones and silicon-containing substances are used for technologically and chemically diverse purposes. Besides industrial applications, relevant examples in the area of architectural coatings include watery dispersions of silicone resins (silicone emulsions) for the hydrophobization of brickwork, silicone anti-foaming agents, silicone sealants and sealing profiles. Silicone sealing profiles require great care because they greatly limit the use of coating materials.

Silicone resin paints
contain silicone resin emulsions as a binder, sometimes in combination with synthetic resin dispersions. The silicone resin creates a water repellent effect with low resistance against steam diffusion.  

Sol-gel process
A technique for the production of non-metallic inorganic or hybrid polymer materials, so-called sols (short for solution). With a special method the sols can be processed into powders, fibres, layers or aerogels. Due to the small size of the intitially created sol particles the sol-gel process is classified as part of chemical nanotechnology.

Solid bodies
The portion of the coating material that remains after the removal of all volatile components (evaporation of the solvents under specified testing conditions), mainly binders and pigments.

Solvent
is a substance that can dissolve or dilute gases, liquids or solids without causing chemical reactions between the dissolved and dissolving substances. In general, liquids such as water and liquid organic substances are used to dissolve other substances. However, solid substances can also dissolve other substances.

Surface energy
Measurement of the energy that is necessary to break up the chemical bonds when a new surface of a solid body or a liquid is created. Surface energy is defined as the energy that must be expended per unit of area for the creation of the surface.

Surface tension
A characteristic of the boundary surface between a liquid and a gas such as air. The surface of a liquid behaves similar to a stretched elastic foil. This effect is the reason why water forms droplets, and contributes to the fact that certain insects can walk across water or that a coin “floats” on water. 

Surfactants
(from latin tensus „stretched tight“) substances that significantly reduce surface tension of a liquid and thus facilitate cleaning. Surfactants make it possible to finely blend two liquids that otherwise cannot be mixed, such as oil and water. The term further describes cleansing substances contained in detergents, but also in emulsion paints and varnishes.

Sweeping
Surface treatment with a non-metallic angular blasting abrasive, e.g. to roughen galvanized steel.

Synthetic resin coatings
Varnishes and paints with synthetic resin binders. Current standard in the painter and do-it-yourself sectors.

Terpenes
Volatile natural components of the resins of coniferous trees, particularly the pinius species (fir and pine wood, etc.). These resins are often used as binders in organic coating materials.

Thermoplastic
Plastics that can be deformed under heat exposure and keep that shape after cooling are said to be thermoplastic. In the area of coatings this property is particularly prevalent among emulsion paints and varnishes, which soften upon heating.

Titanium dioxide
is the most significant white pigment in the production of varnishes and paints.

Top coat
Top layer of a coating. Top coats determine the colour and gloss of a coating and guarantee mechanical and chemical durability. Single layer top coats are pigmented. For double layer top coating systems, a clear varnish is applied to a coloured base varnish.

TREBITT glaze
Solvent-based, transparent wood glaze made by Jotun with a particularly high content of solid bodies. The glaze is extremely weatherproof and contains Chinese wood oils that stabilize weathered wood surfaces. Trebitt glaze is suitable for all woods in exterior uses such as cladding, gables, roofed shelters, folding shutters, fences, timber framing, windows and doors.

Turpentine oil
Oils of varying composition, extracted from wood.

Two-component varnishes
Coating substances for which the chemical reaction that causes the varnish to harden happens so quickly that the hardener is packed separately and only mixed with the so-called base varnish immediately before use. Hardeners for two-component varnishes are often polyisocyanates that cross-link with the base varnish to very durable polyurethane varnishes. 

UV absorber
Pigments that are transparent but filter or absorb energy-rich UV light from the non-visible spectrum.

UV hardening
Deliberate bonding of binders under energy-rich UV light. UV hardening is an extreme process and is used in furniture production among other things.

Varnish
Liquid or powdery coating substance that can be thinly applied to objects and that develops into a continuous, solid film through chemical or physical processes (e.g. evaporation of the solvent). Varnishes generally consist of binders, fillers, pigments, solvents, resins and / or acrylates and additives, such as biocides (in-can preservatives).

The three main purposes of varnishes are:

  • Protection (protective effect, e.g. protective painting, protective varnishes),
  • Decoration (optical effect, e.g. a specific colour effect) and
  • Function (specific surface properties, e.g. modified electrical conductivity)

VOC
Acronym for “volatile organic compound”. VOC describes the classic solvents, but also plasticizers. The proportion of VOC in coating materials is strictly limited through EU norms.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air. 

Wall paint
A good wall paint should on the one hand cover the underground well, on the other hand there should be an even surface after painting. The covering capacity is categorized in classes from 1 to 4. Covering capacity class 1 has the best covering capacity. During use the quality differences are reflected by the necessity to paint several layers when using products from a lower covering capacity class. This costs time and money! Especially on high contrast underground it is time- and resource-consuming to achieve a uniform result using less expensive qualities.

Washprimer
means coatings containing at least 0,5 % by weight of phosphoric acid designed to be applied directly to bare metal surfaces to provide corrosion resistance and adhesion; coatings used as weldable primers; and mordant solutions for galvanised and zinc surfaces.

Water-based varnish
Varnishes that are manufactured and applied using water as dispersing agent and thinner. Water-based paints in the area of architectural painting can be awarded the Blue Angel of the Federal Environment Agency if their solvent content is less than 10%. Water-based varnishes for industrial purposes can be formulated as physically drying, as oxidatively drying or as thermally cross-linking varnishes and also as two-component varnishes.

Water glass
solidified, glass-like and therefore amorphous, water-soluble silicates of sodium, potassium or lithium, or their watery solutions.

Weathering test
(artificially) normed lab testing method simulating an outdoor climate, in which UV radiation exposure represents the main aging factor.

WHC
(Water Hazard Class) Water hazard is rated according to three classes: WHC 1 = low water-polluting. WHC 2 = water-polluting. WHC 3 = high water-polluting.

Wood glazes
are subdivided into three types, each of which has its specific field of application. The three types are thin-layered, medium-layered and thick-layered. Thin-layered glazes permeate deeply into the wood and do not form a film. There is no flaking of the paint and later touch-ups are easy and quick. These glazes are ideal for construction parts that do not hold dimension, such as fences and boarding. The consistency of medium-layered glazes ranges from high to low viscosity. Medium layered glazes permeate the wood more deeply than thick-layered glazes and allow less moisture to pass than thin-layered glazes. They are ideal for protecting construction parts with limited ability to hold dimension, such as window shutters and timber frameworks. Thick-layered glazes are very viscous and form a film. They protect the surface from moisture and are ideal for construction parts that must hold dimension, such as windows and doors.

Wood preservatives
Chemical agents or mixtures that are intended to prevent the infestation of wood or wooden construction materials through wood-destroying or wood-colouring organisms, or to fight such an infestation.

Wrap-around
An effect in the coating of objects by electrostatic spraying or electric dip-coating, that allows the coating particles to reach even less accessible areas of the surface to be coated. The cause of this is the isolation of the surface through the applied varnish. This causes the electric field lines to move to the not yet coated, conductive areas of the surface. The varnish particles follow this electric field.

Xylenes (dimethyl benzene)
Besides toluene they are the most important aromatic hydrocarbons used as solvents e.g. for coating materials.

Zinc carbonate
in chemistry: a zinc salt of carbonic acid.

Zinc chromate
A chemical compound (more precisely a chromate) that is mainly used as a yellow colour pigment and an anticorrosive.

Zinc oxide (ZnO)
Chemical compound of zinc and oxygen, that forms colorless, hexagonal crystals and can be found as loose, white powder due to the refraction of light in the case of very small crystals. Medical products for the treatment of skin defects and wounds often contain zinc oxide because of its aseptic properties.